Painting advanced in the Muromachi period in the form of ink and painting under the influence of Zen Buddhism as practiced by such masters as Sesshū Tōyō.Zen Buddhist tenets were also elaborated into the tea ceremony during the Sengoku period.These include the haiku, tanka, and I Novel, although modern writers generally avoid these writing styles.
After the cessation of official relations with the Tang dynasty in the ninth century, Japanese art and architecture gradually became less influenced by China.
Extravagant art and clothing was commissioned by nobles to decorate their court, and although the aristocracy was quite limited in size and power, many of these pieces are still extant.
Products of popular culture, including pop, rock, manga and anime have found audiences and fans around the world.
Arai Hakuseki, who knew in the 18th century that there were stone tools in Japan, suggested that there was Shukushin in ancient Japan.
Some of the most famous of these include Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji (1021), about Heian court culture; Miyamoto Musashi's The Book of Five Rings (1645), concerning military strategy; Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi (1691), a travelogue; and Jun'ichirō Tanizaki's essay "In Praise of Shadows" (1933), which contrasts Eastern and Western cultures.